Animal and Plant Organs & Systems

Tissue: cells that are grouped together with a common function.

Organ: Tissues that are grouped together with a common function. 

Types of Tissues

  • Epithelial (found in animal cells) 
  • Lines and Protects the organs.
  • Muscle 
  • Allows movement
  • Nervous
  • sends signals and messages
  • connective
  • connects, supports, and protects the body

Organ systems: A collection of organs joined in structural unit to serve a common function.

Types: Respiratory, Circulatory, Digestive, Integumentary, Skeletal, Muscular, Nervous, Endocrine, Excretory, Reproductive, Lymphatic

Respiration

Exchange of O2 and CO2 between an organism and its external environment.

Respiratory System: Supplies O2 to the cells and removes CO2.

Major organs in this system are the Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchiole tubes, Lungs, and Alveoli.

Inhalation:

The Circulatory System:

Definition: Transports materials throughout the organism.

Functions:

  • Delivers vital nutrients & O2 to cells
  • Eliminates Waste
  • chemical messengers (hormones)
  • Regulates body temperature

Major Organ: Heart

Significant Parts:

  • Arteries
  • Veins
  • Capillaries
  1. Systemic Circulation– between heart and body cells
  2. Pulmonary Circulation– between heart and lungs
  3. Cardiac Circulation– through the heart muscle

Digestion

Breakdown of food into smaller parts that can be absorbed or assimilated

System: Supplies nutrients to organism and excretes undigestation wastes

Major Organs: Esophagus, Stomach, Liver, Pancreas, small and large intestines

The Process

  • Once the food enters your body, it travels from the mouth down a tube called the esophagus.
  • the food moves along the esophagus because of the rythmic constriction and relaxation of the smooth muscles that line the esophagus-peristalsis.
  • Food then enters the stomach. The stomach churns the food and mixes it with the digestive juices and enzymes.
  • Finally, the digested nutrients and undigested waste products move into the small and large intestines, which are areas of chemical digestion and removal of wastes.
  • Solid wastes are stored in the rectum and exit the body through the anus.

Our body systems function in a way to maintain hemeostasis, which means “steady state”

Organ systems are interdependent on each other because the action of one system contributes to the action of another system.

Skin and the Integumentary System

THE LARGEST ORGAN IN YOUR BODY IS THE SKIN

Integumentary System is the external covering of the body, including skin, hair, nails and sweat glands.

It is responsible for excreting wastes and regulating body temperature.

It is also the location of sensory receptors for pain, pressure, and temperature.

6 Parts:

  • Epidermis, which is the protective layer of the skin and makes Vitamin D.
  • Dermis Layer which is the inner layer of the skin and is made of connective, muscle, and nervous tissue.
  • Blood Vessels, which dilates when hot to release heat.
  • Sweat pores/gland, which makes sweat to cool down the body temperature.
  • Nerve, which allows the body to feel pain, pressure, heat, and cold
  • Muscles, which cause movement and specific feelings (goosebumps)

There are 7 functions of the Integumentary system:

  1. Protective Covering
  2. Regulates Body Temperature
  3. Manufactures Vitamin D
  4. Sensory Function
  5. Temporary storage of fat, glucose, and water
  6. Screens out harmful UV radiation
  7. Absorbs certain substances through the skin, such as chemicals and drugs.

Vector Borne Diseases

Is a disease carried by organisms that travel to other organisms and from one host to another.

Ex. Malaria:

– Caused by a microscopic protozoan parasite.

-Transmitted by the female mosquito between human hosts.

-Climate constrains the range of many vector borne diseases

-VBDs are currently found mainly in tropical or sub-tropical areas

-Weather affects the timing and intensity of the disease

-Socioeconomic factors also affect distribution of VBDs

-Good public health infrastructure.

Interdependance of Animal Organ Systems

All the organ systems in the human body are interdependant

-this means that the action of one system contributes to the action of another system.

-Each one of your organ systems are groups of organs that work together to carry out specific duties in your body.

-Some organs contribute essential work to more than one organ system.

Pancreas-plays an important role in endocrine and digestion system


SkeletoMuscular System

(combination of skeletal and muscular system)

  • allows one to move
  • support and movement of organism
  • reservoir for endocrine systems

Integumentary and immune system play critical roles in preventing life threatening infections of all your organ systems

Cardiorespiratory System

  • Brings in O2 that cardiovascular system delivers to all of your cells.
  • respiratory system plays a vital role in blood pH maintenance.
  • All organ systems are regulated by your nervous and endocrine systems-those to systems are the co-directors of all your body’s movement-to-movement actions.

Plant Organs

Plant Organs Include:

  • Roots
  • Leaves
  • Stems
  • Flower or Fruit

BREAKING IT DOWN!

Leaf

  • the Leaf is a major site of photosynthesis
  • sugars created here are moved to other parts of the plant.
  • O2 and excess water are excreted from here.

Stomata

  • Carbon dioxide enters here, and oxygen and excess water exit through openings in the leaf epidermal tissue called the stomata.
  • These openings are controlled by species cells known as guard cells

Stem

  • Transports water and nutrients throughout the plant.
  • The sugar produced is carried by vascular tissues to the rest of the plant.
  • supports leaves and flowers.

The Roots

  • anchor the plant in the soil
  • collect water from the surrounding soil
  • store food that is made in other parts of the plant
  • bottom of root, covered with epidermal tissue, known as root cap
  • meristematic tissue, which allows the root to grow

Flower

  • The flower contains male organs called stamens
  • consists of filament
  • the anther produces pollen
  • also contains female organs, called pistil–> consists of ovary, style, and stigma
  • When pollen and an egg unite, the fertilized egg becomes a seed.

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