Bonding

Bonding is a term when an element is to become stable. There is 2 types of bonding, Ionic and Covalent. First is Ionic Bonding.

Ionic bonding

Ionic Bonding occurs with only Metals and Non-Metals. In the atomic level the metal will always lose its electrons, which then becomes positive; that is called a Cation. The Non-Metal always gains electrons, which then becomes negative; that is called an Anion. For an Ionic compound to be complete the overall charge MUST be ZERO.

Ionic Bonding

Steps for Writing Formulas for Ionic Compounds

1. Write the symbol for the metal ex Li

2. Write the subscript, which is number of atoms required

3. Write the symbol for non-metal ex S

4. Number of atoms required.

Example. Li2S

Methods for Ionic Compounds

Method #1

Example: Magnesium and Bromine

They are MgBr2.

Mg has a 2+ charge, while Br has a – charge (1-).

If the formula was Mg Br, the the overall charge will be +1, because (+2) + (-1) = +1. The charge must be 0.

To make it zero we simply add a 2 to the equation then the charge becomes 0, because (+2) + 2(-1) = 0.

Therefore the formula will be MgBr2.

Method #2                                                      ***This will work 90% of the time***

Example #1 

Mg 2+ <—> Bromine

Switch the charges, then Mg *1 and Br *2 then the Formula will be MgB2.

Example #2 

Lithium and Sulpher

Li + <—> S 2- 

= LiS2

Exceptions for Method #2

  •  Use the smallest ratio
  • if the charge is the same then is becomes 1
  • if the charge can be divided by the other, make the ratio smaller

Multi-Valent Ionic Compounds

Multi-Valent Ionic Compounds are metals that are in the center of the table, and are metals that can have more than one stable cation.

For example Fe (Iron) has a 2+ charge or a 3+ charge.  When writing the charge must be written in brackets in the name (Iron (III) = Fe 3+).

Transition Metals

Naming Ionic Compounds 

1.  Name the Meatal

2. *Tranisition metal only: write the charge in brackets

3. Stem-of the name of the Non-metal and add `ìde` ex. chloride

Poly-atomic Bonding

They have  3 or more different elements. They are a special type Ionic bond which involves a poly-atomic Ion (which also have greater the 2 covalent bonds in it).

Poly-Atomic Ionic Bonding

Naming Poly-Atomic Compounds

1. Name the cation +

2. ** tranisition metals: write charge in brackets **

3. Name anion (if it is not a poly-atomic, add `-ide`

Covalent Bonding

Covalent bonding occurs between non-metals and non-metals, They do not happen with metals. Unlike Ionic bonding covalent bonds share electrons, rather then gaining/losing electrons .

Covalent Bonding

Naming Covalent Bonds

1. name the Cation

2. name the Anion

3. if there is more then one Anion the prefix should be according. Ex if there are 2 oxygen then it will called dioxide

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